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Mound-building termites – Wikipedia

Posted: October 5, 2019 at 2:43 pm

Mound-building termites are a group of termite species that live in mounds. These termites live in Africa, Australia and South America. The mounds sometimes have a diameter of 30 metres (98ft). Most of the mounds are in well-drained areas. Termite mounds usually outlive the colonies themselves. If the inner tunnels of the nest are exposed it is usually dead. Sometimes other colonies, of the same or different species, occupy a mound after the original builders' deaths.

The structure of the mounds can be very complicated. Inside the mound is an extensive system of tunnels and conduits that serves as a ventilation system for the underground nest. In order to get good ventilation, the termites will construct several shafts leading down to the cellar located beneath the nest. The mound is built above the subterranean nest. The nest itself is a spheroidal structure consisting of numerous gallery chambers.They come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Some, like Odontotermes termites build open chimneys or vent holes into their mounds, while others build completely enclosed mounds like Macrotermes. The Amitermes (Magnetic termites) mounds are created tall, thin, wedge-shaped, usually oriented north-south.

Workers, smallest in size, are the most numerous of the castes. They are all completely blind, wingless, and sexually immature. Their job is to feed and groom all of the dependent castes. They also dig tunnels, locate food and water, maintain colony atmospheric homeostasis, and build and repair the nest.

The soldiers' job is to defend the colony from any unwanted animals. When the large soldiers attack they emit a drop of brown, corrosive salivary liquid which spreads between the open mandibles. When they bite, the liquid spreads over the opponent. The secretion is commonly stated to be toxic or undergoes coagulation with the air which renders it glue-like.

Finally, there are the reproductives which include the king and the queen. The queen can sometimes grow up to six centimeters long while the lower classes are generally less than one centimeter.

Vegetation on termite mounds usually differs highly from vegetation in the surrounding.[1][2] In African savannas, Macrotermes mounds form 'islands' with high tree densities. This is usually attributed to the fact that due to the digging of termites and due to their decomposition of plant material, the mound soils are generally more fertile than other soil.[3][4] On top of that, mound soils have been found to contain more water than their surroundings, a clear advantage for plant growth in savannas.[4] The high tree densities on termite mounds attract high densities of browsing herbivores, due to the high nutrient contents in foliage from trees growing on mounds,[5][6] or perhaps due to the high quantities of food and shelter on mounds.[2]

The caatinga ecoregion in northeast Brazil has about 200 million termite mounds spread over an area the size of Great Britain.[7] Some of the mounds are 3m (10ft) tall and 10m (33ft) wide, and they are spaced about 20m (66ft) apart. Underneath the mounds are networks of tunnels that required the excavation of 10 cubic kilometres (2.4cumi) of dirt. Scientists performed radioactive dating on 11 mounds. The youngest mound was 690 years old. The oldest was at least 3,820 years and possibly more than twice that. The mounds were built by Syntermes dirus termites, which are about half an inch long. Deforestation in the region helped to reveal the extent of the mounds to scientists.[8] One scientist stated that the mounds apparently represent "the world's most extensive bio-engineering effort by a single insect species."[9]

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Pest Control Tampa & Termite Services | Tri-S Pest Control

Posted: at 2:43 pm

Our termite treatments and service technicians are cross trained, meaning they are not only experts in Tampas pest control but also termite pest control. When our termite service technicians visit your home, office or beach house for regular pest control, theyre also trained to look for potential termite problems. This type of termite control is preventative since the immediate detection can minimize the damage and lessen the cost of the treatment. Our tampa pest exterminators can also suggest ways for the homeowner to prevent future infestation.

The primary pest mosquitoes in Florida are the salt marsh species. These species produce large numbers all around the coast of Florida.

Our mosquito reduction program consist of primarily two types of treatments:Perimeter Mosquito Treatments:Since mosquitoes lay to rest during the day in damp shaded areas, this is where they are vulnerable. Treatments to shrubs, under trees, perimeters around a structure, porches, lanai, eaves and windows are effective in reducing the population.

Larvicide:Affects the larval stage of the mosquito. In this stage the larvae swims up and down in the tidal pools or holding water. This action is performed to feed as well as breathe. The larvae will submerge to feed on organisms and surface. The larvicide leaves a layer on the surface of the water so the larvae cant breathe.

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BugBros Pest Control Services – Bed Bugs, Rodents, Roaches …

Posted: October 4, 2019 at 10:41 pm

Some people keep mice as pets, but in the wild, they arent something you want coming around your home. Not only do mice, rats, and other rodents carry disease, but they quickly produce tons of offspring.

Mice and rats were blamed for the spread of disease during the Dark Ages because people didnt understand that the real threat is the fleas, ticks, and other creatures living on their coat. It didnt take long for these diseased pests to leave most families devastated.

Today, having mice living in homes isnt the worst event, but it is frustrating how many personal belongings they will destroy. Wood, fabrics, books, and other everyday items all soon looking like lunch to rodents.

Unfortunately, it isnt always simple to know if youve run them off once and for all, or if they have only moved into a new hiding space. Make sure that your mice problem gets taken care of the right way and choose us today.

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BugBros Pest Control Services - Bed Bugs, Rodents, Roaches ...

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Gorongosa National Park – Wikipedia

Posted: at 10:40 pm

Gorongosa National Park is at the southern end of the Great African Rift Valley in the heart of central Mozambique, Southeast Africa. The over 4,000 square kilometres (1,500sqmi) park includes the valley floor and parts of surrounding plateaus. Rivers originating on nearby Mount Gorongosa (1,863m (6,112ft)) water the plain.

Seasonal flooding and waterlogging of the valley, which is composed of a mosaic of different soil types, creates a variety of distinct ecosystems. Grasslands are dotted with patches of acacia trees, savannah, dry forest on sands and seasonally rain-filled pans and termite hill thickets. The plateaus contain miombo and montane forests and a spectacular rain forest at the base of a series of limestone gorges.

This combination of unique features at one time supported some of the densest wildlife populations in all of Africa, including charismatic carnivores, herbivores and over 500 bird species. But large mammal numbers were reduced by as much as 95% and ecosystems stressed during Mozambique's long civil conflict at the end of the 20th century.

The Carr Foundation/Gorongosa Restoration Project, a U.S. non-profit organization, has teamed with the Government of Mozambique to protect and restore the ecosystem of Gorongosa National Park and to develop an ecotourism industry to benefit local communities.[1]

The first official act to protect the Gorongosa region, Portuguese Mozambique, came in 1920, when the Mozambique Company ordered 1,000 square km set aside as a hunting reserve for company administrators and their guests. Chartered by the government of Portugal, the Mozambique Company controlled all of central Mozambique between 1891 and 1940.

In 1935, Mr. Jose Henriques Coimbra was named warden and Jose Ferreira became the reserve's first guide. That same year the Mozambique Company enlarged the reserve to 3,200 square km to protect habitat for nyala and black rhino, both highly prized hunting trophies. By 1940 the reserve had become so popular that a new headquarters and tourist camp was built on the floodplain near the Mussicadzi River. Unfortunately, it had to be abandoned two years later due to heavy flooding in the rainy season. Lions then occupied the abandoned building and it became a popular tourist attraction for many years, known as Casa dos Lees (Lion House).

After the Mozambique Company's charter ended, management of the reserve was transferred to the colonial government. Alfredo Rodriques was appointed Warden, replacing Jose Coimbra. Over the next 14 years Rodrigues initiated the first steps towards banning hunting and establishing a viable tourism business. In 1951 construction began on a new headquarters and other facilities at Chitengo camp, including a restaurant and bar. By the end of the 1950s more than 6,000 tourists were visiting annually and the colonial government had awarded the first tourism concession in the park. In 1955 the Veterinary and Animal Industry Services division of the colonial government assumed control of all wildlife management in Mozambique, including Gorongosa. Gorongosa was named a national park by the Government of Portugal in 1960.[citation needed]

Many improvements to the new park's trails, roads and buildings ensued. Between 1963 and 1965 Chitengo camp was expanded to accommodate 100 overnight guests. By the late 1960s it had two swimming pools, a bar and nightclub, a restaurant serving 300-400 meals a day, a post office, a petrol station, a first-aid clinic, and a shop selling local handicrafts.

The late 1960s also saw the first comprehensive scientific studies of the Park, led by Armando Rosinha, Director of Gorongosa, and Kenneth Tinley, an Australian ecologist. In the first-ever aerial survey, Tinley and his team counted about 200 lions, 2,200 elephants, 14,000 African buffalo, 5,500 wildebeest, 3,000 zebras, 3,500 waterbuck, 2,000 impala, 3,500 hippos, and herds of eland, sable and hartebeest numbering more than five hundred. The great development of Gorongosa until 1975 was made by Armando Rosinha.

Tinley also discovered that many people and most of the wildlife living in and around the park depended on one river, the Vundudzi, which originated on the slopes of nearby Mount Gorongosa. Because the mountain was outside the park's boundaries, Tinley proposed expanding them to include it as a key element in a "Greater Gorongosa Ecosystem" of about 8,200 square kilometers. He and other scientists and conservationists had been disappointed in 1966 when the government reduced the park's area to 3,770 square kilometers.

Meanwhile, Mozambique was in the midst of a war for independence launched in 1964 by the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo). Fortunately the war had little impact on Gorongosa National Park until 1972, when a Portuguese company and members of the Provincial Volunteer Organization were stationed there to protect it. Even then, not much damage occurred, although some soldiers hunted illegally. In 1974, the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon overthrew the Estado Novo regime. When the new Portuguese authorities decided to abdicate power in their overseas territories, Mozambique became an independent republic. In 1976, a year after Mozambique won its independence from Portugal, aerial surveys of the Park and adjacent Zambezi River delta counted thousands of elephants in the region and a healthy population of lions, numbering in the hundreds. It was the largest lion population recorded in the greater Gorongosa region to date.

In 1977, the People's Republic of Mozambique, under the leadership of Samora Machel declared itself a Marxist-Leninist state.[2] A rebel army known as RENAMO sprung up to oppose the new government. Threatened by FRELIMO's new one-party government in Mozambique, neighbouring Rhodesia and South Africa began arming and supplying RENAMO.[3] Once Rhodesia became Zimbabwe in 1980, direct support for RENAMO came from South Africa with the intention of destabilizing Machel's government. Initially dismissed by Machel as a group of "armed bandits", RENAMO's war developed into a full-scale national threat by 1981.[4] In December 1981 the Mozambican National Resistance (MNR, or RENAMO) fighters attacked the Chitengo campsite and kidnapped several staff, including two foreign scientists. The Mozambican Civil War lasted from 1977 to 1992.

The violence increased in and around the Park after that. In 1983 the park was shut down and abandoned. For the next nine years Gorongosa was the scene of frequent battles between opposing forces. Fierce hand-to-hand fighting and aerial bombing destroyed buildings and roads. The park's large mammals suffered huge losses. Both sides in the conflict slaughtered hundreds of elephants for their ivory, selling it to buy arms and supplies. Hungry soldiers shot many more thousands of zebras, wildebeest, African buffalo, and other ungulates. Lions and other large predators were gunned down for sport or died of starvation when their prey disappeared.

A cease-fire agreement ended the civil war in 1992 but widespread hunting in the park continued for at least two more years. By that time many large mammal populationsincluding elephants, hippos, buffalo, zebras, and lions had been reduced by 95 percent. Surveys counted just 15 buffalo, 5 zebra, 6 lions, 100 hippos, 300 elephants and just a handful of wildebeest. The cheetahs, leopards, hyenas, wild dogs and rhinoceros were nearly extinct. However, the park's extensive birdlife emerged relatively unscathed.

A preliminary effort to rebuild Gorongosa National Park's infrastructure and restore its wildlife began in 1994 when the African Development Bank (ADB) started work on a rehabilitation plan with assistance from the European Union and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Fifty new staff were hired, most of them former soldiers. Baldeu Chande and Roberto Zolho, both employed by the Park before the Civil War, returned to take leadership positions. Chande was director of the emergency program and Zolho was wildlife coordinator and warden. Over a five-year period this ADB initiative reopened about 100 kilometers of roads and trails and trained guards to slow illegal hunting.[citation needed]

In 2004 the Government of Mozambique and the US-based Carr Foundation agreed to work together to rebuild the park's infrastructure, restore its wildlife populations and spur local economic developmentopening an important new chapter in the park's history.

Between 2004 and 2007 the Carr Foundation invested more than $10 million in this effort. During that time the restoration project team completed a 60-square-kilometre (23sqmi) wildlife sanctuary and reintroduced African buffalo and wildebeest to the ecosystem. They also began the reconstruction of Chitengo Safari Camp.[citation needed]

Due to the success of this initial three-year project, the Government of Mozambique and the Carr Foundation announced in 2008 that they had signed a 20-year agreement to restore and co-manage the park. Several thousand visitors now enter the park each year, most staying overnight at Chitengo Safari Camp. Some of these visitors go to see the progress being made in the restoration project, and many others are seeing the park for the first time.[citation needed]

In July 2010, the Government of Mozambique made public the decision to increase the area of the Gorongosa National Park and to incorporate Mount Gorongosa (above 700 m) making true an old desire that had been presented in the 60s by the then Park ecologist, Kenneth Tinley. The Government also announced the official establishment of a Park buffer zone of 3,300 square km.[citation needed]

Since the beginning of the project, aerial surveys of wildlife have shown sharp increases in the number of large animals.[5][6]

In the aftermath of Cyclone Idai, park rangers conducted rescue missions using their helicopter, boat, and tractor.[7] According to Gorongosa Project president Gregory Carr, the park was "right in the middle of the impacted area." Roughly half the park was flooded due to the cyclone, but impacts to wildlife were expected to be minimal as the animals would be able to migrate to higher ground. The protection of this area was cited as a reason that the impacts of the flood on the human population were less severe, as the protected wilderness area can moderate the flow of water.[8]

In March 2018, a leopard was captured by camera after 14 years.[9][10]

The Park is in a 4,000-square-km section of the Great African Rift Valley system. The Rift extends from Ethiopia to central Mozambique. Massive tectonic shifts began forming the Rift about 30 million years ago. Other warpings, uplifts, and sinkings of the Earth's crust over millennia shaped the plateaus on both sides and the mountain to the west. Mozambique's tropical savanna climate, with an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons, has added another factor to the complex equation: constant change in soil moisture that varies with elevation. The valley is located 21km west of Mount Gorongosa at 14 m above sea level.

Gorongosa National Park protects a vast ecosystem defined and shaped by the rivers that flow into Lake Urema. The Nhandungue crosses the Barue Plateau on its way down to the valley. The Nhandue and Mucombeze come from the north. Mount Gorongosa contributes the Vunduzi. Several smaller rivers pour down off the Cheringoma Plateau. Together they comprise the Urema Catchment, an area of about 7,850 square km.

Lake Urema is located in the middle of the valley, about three-quarters of the way down from the Park's northern boundary. The Muaredzi River, flowing from the Cheringoma Plateau, deposits sediments near the outlet of the lake slowing its drainage. This "plug" causes the Urema River to greatly expand in the rainy season. Water that makes its way past this alluvial fan flows down the Urema River to the Pungue and into the Indian Ocean. In the flooded rainy season, water backs up into the valley and out onto the plains, covering as much as 200 square km in many years. During some dry seasons, the lake's waters shrink to as little as 10 square km. This constant expansion and retraction of the floodplains, amidst a patchwork of savanna, woodland, and thickets, creates a complex mosaic of smaller ecosystems that support a greater abundance and diversity of wildlife than anywhere else in the park.

Scientists have identified three main vegetation types supporting the Gorongosa ecosystems wealth of wildlife. Seventy-six percent is savanna combinations of grasses and woody species that favour well-drained soils. Fourteen percent is woodlands several kinds of forest and thickets. The rest is grasslands subjected to harsh seasonal conditions that prevent trees from growing. All three types are found throughout the system, with many different sub-types and varieties. Tree cover increased throughout the park in the decades following the Mozambican Civil War, likely due to the dramatic declines of large herbivores such as elephants during that period.[11]

Mount Gorongosa has rainforests, montane grasslands, riverine forests along its rivers, and forests and savanna woodlands at lower elevations. Both plateaus are covered with a kind of closed-canopy savanna, widespread in southern Africa, called miombo, after the Swahili word for the dominant tree, a member of the genus Brachystegia. About 20 percent of the valleys grasslands are flooded much of the year.

More than 2,000 people live on Mount Gorongosa.[citation needed] In July 2010 the government of Mozambique and the Gorongosa Restoration Project (headed by the U.S.based Carr Foundation) announced that Gorongosa Mountain would be added to the park bringing its total size to 4067km2.[12] This designation has contributed to an ongoing conflict between long-term residents of the mountain and representatives of the park.[13]

Gorongosa is home to a large diversity of animals and plantssome of which are found nowhere else in the world. This rich biodiversity creates a complex world where animals, plants and people interact. From the smallest insects to the largest mammals, each plays an important role in the Gorongosa ecosystem. The Park includes termite mounds used as shade by bushbuck and kudu.[14]

Many of the park's large herbivore populations were greatly reduced by years of war and poaching. However, almost all naturally occurring speciesincluding more than 400 kinds of birds and a wide variety of reptileshave survived. With effective management and reintroductions of key species, wildlife populations will regain their natural numbers and help restore the park's ecological balance.[according to whom?]

In 2018, 14 African wild dogs from South Africa were reintroduced to Gorongosa National Park.[15] The wild dogs had become extirpated from the park during the 1977-1992 civil war.[16]

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Housewraps, Felt Paper and Weather Penetration Barriers …

Posted: at 10:40 pm

Please note: This older articleby our former faculty member remainsavailable on our site for archival purposes. Some information contained in it may be outdated.

Siding isnt weather-proof. A second line of defense is a critical component in smart weather-protecting wall designs.

by Paul Fisette 2001

The shell of a house serves as the first line of defense between the occupants and the outdoor environment. Walls function as a weather barrier, nail base for finish materials and an energy conserving boundary. A sensible wall system is durable. And this requires all components in a wall assembly to be compatible for the long haul. Siding, siding finishes, housewraps, insulation and wall frames must work together while achieving distinctive goals. So it is in this light that we should view a primary, but often overlooked, component in residential wall systems: weather-resisting wall wraps.

Wood, brick, masonry, vinyl, and other sidings do not function as barriers to driving rain. Siding is porous. There are a multitude of joints, laps, and connections making it discontinuous. Water and air are driven through these leakage points by wind, gravity and capillary forces. Also, we generally use water-sensitive materials for siding and structural elements. Leaking water rots wood, grows mold, corrodes steel and lowers insulating R-values. Another concern is that leaking air strips heat from homes and dollars from energy budgets. So air-tight construction is desirable.

Force of NatureMost of us live in climates influenced by rain and wind. During a storm, a thin film of water clings to windward surfaces. Porous materials, like unfinished shingles, stained wood clapboards, and masonry veneers soak up water. Non-porous materials like freshly painted wood, aluminum and vinyl dont. But the film of water sticks to all siding products. As the winds speed and direction shifts, water moves up, down and sideways under the influence of air pressure. It moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. The area directly behind a wind-blown wall surface is at a lower pressure than its exterior face. This pressure difference works to suck the water inward through any hole it finds. Ive stripped problem walls immediately after heavy rain to monitor rain intrusion and establish moisture profiles. It is perfectly clear that butt-joints, seams, holes, and siding overlaps are siphon points driven by air pressure, gravity and capillary suction. If there is no building paper, water will get wicked up into the wood sheathing where is often causes structural problems.

Many carpenters make the mistake of thinking that siding wood, brick, vinyl, stucco is an impenetrable barrier against the elements. The truth is, whether water is propelled by wind, capillary attraction, gravity, or some combination of these forces, sooner or later it finds its way behind, around or through the siding. Your local code may not require you to use felt or housewrap, but unless you live in an extremely arid climate you need to use it. Typically, building paper is installed as soon as the sheathing is installed. But to be effective, it must be integrated with the flashing that follows in later stages of the job. This means, for example, having to slit the housewrap above windows to tuck under the upper leg of a metal cap flashing, then taping the wrap to the flashing. And the wrap itself must be properly layered, overlapped and taped where necessary to provide a clear drainage path (see Watertight Walls article.)

The Problem with Caulked JointsI think the majority of builders and siding manufacturers believe that caulking around windows, between the end-joints of siding and along corner boards constitutes the development of a impenetrable rain barrier. Building codes even prescribe caulked siding as an acceptable weather protection system. The argument goes: If you caulk every joint, hole and seam in the siding, how can it leak? I am not a fan of this approach, especially if caulked joints involve wood or wood-based products. The best silicone sealants boast elongation rates up to 75%. Lesser caulks, like some acrylics, move a paltry 15%! This means that when a 1/8-inch wide caulked joint, made with the highest-grade sealant, moves 3/32-inch it fails!

There are two things wrong with the sealed-face approach: First, dynamic joints, like siding joints, move dramatically as a result of moisture and thermal loading. For example, a 6-inch wooden corner board will shrink and swell 1/4-inch when exposed to normal weather conditions. By the way, vinyl moves too. Nail slots in vinyl siding are elongated for a reason: to allow for nail slippage as the vinyl siding expands and contracts (thermally). Secondly, even if a joint doesnt move enough to make the caulk itself fail, in time, repetitive movement and prolonged exposure cause failure at the bonded connection. Look closely at caulked joints that have been in service for several years and you will see hairline cracks where the caulk once bonded securely to wood, masonry and vinyl components. A hairline crack is large enough to admit pressurized water, but not large enough to encourage drying. In the short term caulking can help block water penetration. In the long run it actually traps moisture behind the siding. Can an effective sealed-face barrier system be constructed? Yes, but, it is too risky and requires vigilant and costly maintenance.

Barrier DesignThere are basically 3 types of weather-barrier systems: the sealed-face method; the vented rain-screen approach; and the redundant-barrier system. The sealed-face method is straight out non-effective. The vented rain-screen approach is clearly the Mother of all weather-barrier systems. However, the redundant-barrier approach works well and is the most cost effective option.

The vented rain-screen is a system where lengths of strapping are fastened to housewrap-protected wall sheathing. Siding is attached to the strapping leaving an air space between the back of the siding and the face of the sheathing. This design does 2 very important things: The air pressure between the air on the outside of the siding and the air space created behind the siding is similar (if the siding is leaky to air). Therefore, rainwater is not sucked through the penetrations in the siding. No driving force! The second strength of this system is that the air space behind the siding promotes rapid drying if any water does get past the siding.

Constructing a rain screen is somewhat costly and labor intensive. Installation is unconventional, so it requires rethinking of some details. Window and door trim must be padded out. Flashing should be extended back to the sheathing beyond the air space and under the housewrap. Door hinges may need to be extended, so doors can be fully opened. Roof overhangs at gable ends must be extended to cover thicker wall sections. The bottom of the air space must be covered with screening to prevent critters from entering the vent chamber. These and other accommodations are certainly doable, but involve more labor and materials than typical construction. In my opinion, rain screens are required fare for wet, wind-blown areas like the Pacific Northwest, exposed coastal environments and hilltop exposures. But, this approach is not required or cost-effective for most climates and construction budgets.

The redundant-barrier works well for the vast majority of homes built today. And this system has the advantage of being familiar to builders. Basically, putting tar paper or approved housewrap on the exterior walls before siding is installed is the first step to build an effective redundant-barrier system. Proper installation is required to make this system work. You must design a drainage plane that keeps water out! When water penetrates the siding, it must have a clear path to follow downward. Water must remain outside of the protective wrap. Be sure that tops of windows, doors and penetrations are flashed properly (see Making Walls Watertight). All water must be directed outward. Also, we must choose materials that are capable of providing the protection we expect and need. The barrier should be resistant to liquid water and air infiltration, while being permeable to water vapor.

It should be noted that the redundant barrier approach works reasonably well with sidings that overlap like clapboards, lap siding and vinyl siding. These siding applications leave small air spaces between the sheathing wrap and siding. This provides a minimal drainage plane and promotes some drying. However, panel siding, T 111, and board siding lay flat against the sheathing wrap and do not provide any drainage or dryiing space. Water that gets past the siding can remain trapped between the siding and wrap for longer periods of time, raising the potential for moisture problems.

Building Code RequirementsI am very respectful of building code development and the enforcement process, but I dont think building codes provide clear direction in this case. Basically, all Model codes agree on the need for a weather-resistant barrier paper (usually specified as #15 felt or Grade D Kraft paper) behind stucco, brick, stone and other porous veneers. The paper requirement is typically omitted for other types of siding when theyre installed over rated structural sheathing. Alone among the codes, BOCA, in its 1998 supplement, requires a layer of #15 felt over the sheathing regardless of the siding type. BOCA has also beefed up its flashing requirements, spelling out nine areas needing flashing, and getting rid of an earlier exception for leakproof caulking (apparently in recognition that no caulking is leakproof for long. (See BOCA 1405.3.6 and 1405.3.10)

Though 15-pound felt is usually cited, all the codes allow for the substitution of equivalent materials, opening the door for plastic housewraps. To qualify as an equal, the housewrap must pass performance tests conducted by an independent lab and paid for by the manufacturer. The manufacturer submits the test data to the evaluation services of the various code bodies, which issue reports describing the materials properties and stating which code performance requirements it meets. Assuming it meets the right criteria, the housewrap can then be used instead of the felt or building paper specified in the code.

Be careful: As in most code matters, its up to your local inspector to approve an equivalent material. Chances are, given the wide use and acceptance of housewrap, you wont have a problem. But if its an unfamiliar brand, the inspector may ask you to provide the evaluation service report for the product.

So far, weve just been talking about the structural codes, all of which reference the Model Energy Code. Under the MEC you either have to use caulk, tape, and gaskets to seal up seams and penetrations in the building shell against air infiltration, or the easier route, you can install a vapor-permeable housewrap. If you live in a state or locale that has adopted and enforces MEC, this may be the reason you use a housewrap. Felt will also meet the criteria, since its perm rating is typically around 5 in the dry state.

Making Sense of Housewrap Specifications TestingASTM (the American Society of Testing & Materials) has recently convened a task force on weather-resistive barriers asphalt-treated kraft paper, asphalt-saturated organic felt, and housewrap in an effort to bring some consistency to the performance criteria by which these products are measured. A recent memo from the chairman of the group states that the three materials, any of which may meet the code criteria for building paper or weather-resistive barrier, are described by differentstandards and that there is no way to compare materials by a common set of criteria. The memo goes on to list no less than 24 test standards that manufacturers may pick and choose from to gain code approval for their products.

Apples to OrangesA basic problem is that even if two manufacturers use the same test, the results cant be compared because the tests are often set up differently. For example, ASTM E 283, commonly used to test resistance to air infiltration, requires that the weather barrier be stretched over an 88-foot wall frame. However, the manufacturer can instruct the testing lab to put the wrap over anything from an open-stud wall to a fully-sheathed, sided, insulated, and drywalled frame. Plywood can be oriented horizontally, so the seams fall between studs, or vertically, so the seams fall over the studs. To make a comparison, you would have to buy a copy of the code report for each product. Unless the test assemblies were exactly the same, a comparison of the specs would be meaningless.

There are many test procedures that can be used to qualify wall wraps as water resistant, but ASTM D 779, commonly called the boat test, is recognized as the industry standard. In this test, a small sample of wall wrap is folded like a piece of origami and floated on water in a petri dish. A powdered substance, called an indicator, is sprinkled on top of the wrap in a fine-layered, 1-inch circle. As water soaks up through the wrap, the indicator begins to change color. When an observer determines that the indicator is changing color at the fastest rate a sign that water is passing through the wrap at the most rapid rate the test is over and the elapsed time is noted. To qualify as a Grade D wrap, it must take at least 10 minutes for the color to change at its fastest rate. If a wall wrap claims a rating of 60, that means it took 60 minutes.

A problem with the boat test is that water vapor can also trigger the indicators change of color meaning that a highly vapor-permeable wrap like Tyvek fails. As an alternative, DuPont put Tyvek through AATCC 127, the hydro-head test, to prove its water resistance. In this test, the material is subjected to a 22-inch column of water the same force exerted by a 200-mph and must not leak a drop for 5 hours. This is a far more demanding test for water resistance than the boat test, yet as far as I know, among the plastic wraps, only Tyvek and R-Wrap have passed. Some researchers claim that felt has also passed, though inconsistently.

How Much Is Enough?Here again, product literature can be misleading. Some manufacturers may list hydro-head test values like 186 cm. This is the height that the water column reached before the material began to leak.

One tested value that actually can be compared between brands of housewrap is vapor permeance, which is usually tested according to ASTM E 96, with the results expressed in perms. The higher the value, the more permeable the material. (A material with a perm rating of 1 or less is considered a vapor barrier.) Unfortunately, the wide spread in perm ratings among brands from 5 perms to over 200 perms makes it a little difficult to assess the importance of this number. The codes require wall wraps to match or exceed Grade D building paper, which has a minimum perm value of 5.

To complicate things, the permeance of felt paper is a moving target. Felt paper absorbs water and ranges from a low of around 5 perms when its dry to over 60 perms when its exposed to relative humidity above 95%. The perm values of engineered wall wraps, however, are moisture-stable. Although high permeance is generally desirable in a wrap, excessively high ratings are not as important as resistance to air and water.

The ProductsThere is no shortage of housewrap products. The last time I counted there were at least 14 brands. The knee-jerk reaction is to think that all products work the same: wrap the house; apply the siding; and youre warm and dry. Plastic housewraps are engineered materials. They are designed to prevent air infiltration and keep out liquid water, while allowing water vapor to escape from inside of the home. Thats a tall order. Felt paper and all of the plastic housewraps display these properties to one degree or another. The difficulty comes in distinguishing between them. The question is: how well do these materials work? And if you choose to use a housewrap, does it matter which brand?

With all of the code test data available, youd think it would be easy to evaluate performance and compare one product to another. Unfortunately, there is not consistency in the testing procedure or in how the results are reported, so comparisons are difficult or meaningless. As an alternative, my students and I recently decided to do some testing of our own in the lab at UMass.

Lab BenchMy current work at the University of Massachusetts includes laboratory study and field investigation of construction problems. I receive hundreds of questions regarding the performance of building materials each year. Many questions are related to siding performance and moisture intrusion. Most water intrusion problems I see are clearly related to the improper installation of materials. Usually, flashing details around doors, windows and penetrations are to blame. But I was roused by my field work to test some of the more popular housewrap brands and see how they performed when exposed to a few basic laboratory conditions.

Test Products

BRAND

MATERIAL

MANUFACTURER

Amowrap

woven polypropylene with a perforated coating

Tenneco Building Products

Barricade

woven polyethylene with a perforated coating

Simplex Products Division

Pinkwrap

woven polypropylene with a perforated coating

Owens Corning

R-Wrap

porous polyethylene film laminated to scrim

Simplex Products Division

Typar

spun-bonded polypropylene with a perforated coating

Reemay, Inc.

Tyvek HomeWrap

spun-bonded polyethylene

E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co.

15 Pound Felt

asphalt impregnated

Our goal was not to establish quantifiable data that predicted real-world performance. But we did want to explore the character or tendencies of these wraps when exposed to clean water, soapy water, and cedar-extractive-rich water. We subjected each wrap to a 3-1/2 inch hydro head instead of the 22-inch head used in the AATCC 127 test. A 3-1/2 inch head delivers a force to the wrap that is roughly equivalent to a 70 mph wind. We recorded the loss of water over a 2-hour period for each test we performed. Wind pressure and hydro-head conditions are certainly 2 different things, but we felt this was a reasonable level of stress to apply since wind commonly exerts a similar force on rain-covered walls.

Our test results showed that after a series of 2-hour test runs, clean water never leaked through Tyvek or R-Wrap; 15-pound felt lost 30% of its water on average; and all other products drained completely. It was especially noteworthy that the perforated wraps (Amowrap, Pinkwrap and Barricade) lost more than 80% of the water in the first 15 minutes. The performance of Felt and Typar was highly variable. Typar and Felt often held water for 30 minutes or more before leaking.

There was speculation that surfactants (soaps) could make housewraps more water permeable. And we found this to be true. Surfactants, which break down the surface tension of water, making it flow more easily, are present in soaps and oils that can be found on the surface of construction materials and hands of installers. This may be significant since people regularly powerwash their homes, perhaps making them more likely to leak. Also, cedar and other wood sidings contain water soluble extractives that are thought to act as surfactants. Paints and stucco have surfactants as part of their formulation too. So surfactants seemed like an interesting thing to investigate.

We ran a series of hydro tests using soapy water and then another series using a cedar-extractive solution. We limited our tests to Tyvek, R-Wrap and Felt, since these were the winners of the first round of clean-water tests. Tyvek and R-Wrap lost about 10% of the soapy water column in 2 hours. Felt seemed unaffected by soap, still loosing 30% of its water. Tyvek and R-Wrap lost about 3% of the cedar-extractive mix in 2-hours, while Felt again lost 30%. It does appear that soaps and extractives do have at least some affect on the water resistance of housewraps.

NOTE: Typar introduced a new non-perforated housewrap in 2003. We tested this new version in our lab during the spring semester of 2003 using the same tests described above. We found that the new Typar performed as well as Tyvek and Rwrap in the hydro-head testing. In fact it demonstrated superior resistance to surfactants when compared with the performance of Tyvek.

Housewrap or Felt?Based on our testing, if I were buying a housewrap today, I would choose either Tyvek or R-Wrap, because they display the best water resistance. But so far, Ive avoided the million dollar question housewrap or felt? The truth is, theres not million dollar answer. In general, I dont think it matters a whole lot. If you get the flashing details right, and are careful installing the building paper, you will prevent 99% of the moisture problems caused by wind-driven rain and snow. Either product, housewrap or felt, will provide an adequate secondary drainage plane. And either product is permeable enough to allow interior moisture to escape.

As it happens, I have felt paper on my own home, and if I could choose between felt and housewrap and do it over again, Id still choose felt. Thats because I believe that under certain circumstances, felt outperforms housewrap. For example, an ice dam or roof leak may allow liquid water to get behind the felt or housewrap. Its also possible for the suns heat to drive water vapor through the housewrap from the outside, where it can condense on the sheathing. In either of these cases, you now have liquid water on the wrong side of the wrap. Under these conditions, the liquid water would be trapped by the housewrap, which is permeable only to water vapor. Felt, on the other hand, will absorb the water, and more quickly dry to the outside.

End NotesDespite your best efforts, some water will make it through the siding, so you ought to plan for it. If you choose the right housewrap and install it correctly, you should have dry wall cavities. One associated issue that deserves special mention is the installation of wood siding over housewraps.

Wood is an absorbent material. It stores water. Since rain is sucked through butt-joints, seams and even upward past overlapping edges, it has access to the back surface. We usually paint the face of siding to reduce water absorption. But many builders leave the backside raw. You dont want to store water in a place that has direct contact with vapor permeable housewraps. The suns heat can turn the stored liquid water into vapor. The vapor moves inward when the temperature of the siding face is warmer than the air behind the siding. And since housewraps are vapor permeable, they can allow vapor to pass into the building envelope from the outside. As the sun sets or moves to another side of the house, the temperature of the wall may drop below the dewpoint temperature, changing the vapor back to liquid. And guess what? The reconstituted liquid is on the wrong side of a water-resistant barrier! This set of conditions is suspected to have caused wet sheathing in several unusual cases.

In short: Backprime wood siding so it doesnt absorb water and bleed extractive juice onto potentially sensitive housewraps! The best advice is to pre-treat all sides of the wood with a coating of clear water repellent preservative. Water repellents block liquid water much better that paint. And it allows vapor to pass out of the wood if any water happens to get sucked into the siding through splits and cracks. Very forgiving! After the water repellent has dried, install the siding, prime and apply 2 top coats of 100% acrylic latex paint. Dont forget to treat the ends, edges and backs of wood siding.

Recommendations

always use housewrap (even with a vented rain screen)

determine if climate requires a vented rain screen or redundant barrier system.

for redundant barriers I would choose Tyvek, R-Wrap or 15-pound felt

tape all seams in barrier

protect all flashings with overlapping wrap

avoid use of caulking, concentrate on developing an effective drainage plane.

protect all penetrations with appropriate detailing

prime all surfaces of wood siding (back-priming) before applying top coats

For results of our follow-up study involving capillary suction through housewraps see Leaky Housewraps.

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Atlas Pest Control OKC | Exterminator | Termite Control

Posted: October 3, 2019 at 4:44 pm

Call today for a FREE Estimate.

Pests are carriers of various diseases and a danger to the health of your family. They are also prone to causing physical damage to your home and property. Our targeted pest control OKC treatments start on the outside of your homes perimeter so we can limit how much we have to treat the interior of your home.

Atlas Pest Control Four Seasons Protection Planis a unique solution to the on-going pest problem in the Oklahoma City area. We combine the best OKC exterminator products that are focused for each individual season, along with our trained staff, and we take a defensive approach to keep pests at bay when it comes to your home and your family here in OKC.

Maintenance Service.Pests of all kinds can get into your home and cause problems. At Atlas Termite & Pest Control, we provide an Integrated Pest Management program. Our OKC pest control services are unique for each customer thatwe work with. We offer monthly, bimonthly, quarterly and one-time programs to help you out the best we can. Atlas Termite & Pest Control has been serving the Oklahoma City Metro area since 1959, including Moore, Edmond, the OKC Metro area, Norman, Mustang, Del City, Midwest City, and Yukon.

We can help with spiders, scorpions, cockroaches, bed bugs, bees and wasps, rodents, silverfish, ants, termites, and more. Our goal is to help you live in a pest free home that issafe for your family so you can sleep better at night. Our highly trained exterminators in OKC are on standby and ready to give you a free estimate right away.

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Pest Control Perth | Allpest

Posted: at 4:43 pm

Residential

We offer general domestic pest control for ants, cockroaches, spiders and rodents etc. We also offer organic residential pest control options a non-toxic way to get rid of pests. Our treatments come with a warranty. Part of our unique service is that we provide onsite quotes, and we respond to urgent call outs, with a two-hour turnaround time.

Commercial

We provide a reliable and professional commercial pest control service to a wide range of Perth businesses. All our pest management programmes are HACCP, Foodsafe and AQIS compliant. We have a portfolio of over 2000 commercial clients across a variety of industries. Some of our clients include Aged Care and Health Care, establishing our service as highly accredited and qualified.

Cockroaches

When it comes to pest control, cockroaches are one of the most common pests that need to be exterminated in households and businesses.We will professionally eradicate your property of all species of cockroaches, large and small, in an efficient and safe manner.

Termites

Also referred to as white ants, termites can cause extensive damage. When you have a termite infestation dont delay in calling in the experts to minimise the damage and fight back. Termites are responsible for causing millions of dollars damage across Australia annually. We use a variety of termite control chemical treatments but also operate Exterra, one of the world best termite defence solutions. We are also open to using more environmentally friendly systems whenever possible.

Rats

Like termites, rats require rapid treatment when theres an infestation as rats pose a major health risk to homes and businesses, spreading disease, contaminating food, and chewing wiring. Our rat control techniques are safe and effective.

Other Services

Our pest exterminator services extend into the mining industry where we are committed to the environmental management and quarantine of Barrow Island, implementing pest control programmes as specified by Chevron.

Our pre-construction division is where our expert technicians make use of multiple termite management systems to protect your construction builds. Many of these systems will protect your building long after construction has been completed.

We are licensed and experienced to carry out our fumigation service according to your needs. Our services comply with all relevant AQIS standards.

For further information, contact us about our pest management services.

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13 Different Types of Termites Eating Houses All Over the World

Posted: at 4:43 pm

Termites are typically known as wood-eaters, but did you know they have also earned the title of the silent destroyer? Read all about the different types of termites, their characteristics, and how to identify them.- Advertisement -

By looking at a single termite, one wouldnt expect it to be even remotely close to being dangerous or menacing; however, massive colonies of termites have been found to inflict serious structural damage in a lot of peoples homes.

They have also been given the title of silent destroyers due to their unbelievable ability to chew through wood, furniture, flooring, wallpapers, and fence posts, and that too, undetected! You will be surprised to hear that in a given year, termites cause more than $5 billion in property and structural damage each year.

Related: 21 common household insects (in and outside the home)

Termites were once known as the white ant and were widely confused with an actual ant. However, with the advent of technology and the use of microscopes, people were able to prove that there are several distinguishing features between termites and ants. These were typical termite features that include a broad abdomen, straight termite antennae, and equal sized wings.

Fascinatingly though, due to the million dollars worth of destruction caused by termites each year, they are considered truly novel insects and have been ranked as the most successful insect pests to deal with.

Although there are up to 2000 species of termites found on the planet Earth, the following are the most common and popular ones that pose the greatest threat and risk to most homeowners in the United States.

As the name suggests, these termites live underground and are typically found across every state in the US except Alaska. Subterranean termites build underground colonies that often contain more than 2 million members. An interesting fact about these termites is that they have to live in damp conditions in order to survive, so they build mud tunnels that are specifically called mud tubes to be able to stay damp and travel from place to place. These tubes also allow them to protect themselves from open air and find accessible food sources.

Their typical food sources include fence posts, trees, and timbers in houses. These termites are known for their rapid wood-eating abilities which make them the most destructive kinds of termites. One way to tell if the wood in your home has been infested by subterranean termites is by the appearance of the holes on the damaged wood that appear like a honeycomb.

Subterranean termites are commonly divided into 4 groups in order to easily identify them. The Alates (swarmers) sport a dark brown or black color and are almost half an inch long with two pairs of wings while the workers are almost one-fourth inch or less in length, have no wings and are ream in color. Then there is a group called soldiers with creamy-white bodies, brownish heads, and they have large jaws and no wings.

There are six main categories or species of subterranean termites that are commonly found in the United States.

The Arid-land Subterranean termites are typically found in the regions including the West Coast, Midwest, Southwest, South, and the Rocky Mountain States.

They have also been divided into 3 main castes that include adult reproductives that are usually black or dark brown in color and are half an inch long with clear wings. The soldiers have long mandibles to fight off predators and are the same size as the adult caste. Finally, the worker caste that has an appearance similar to light colored ants.

These termites usually attack types of greasewood and creosote although they do resort to attacking structures when their natural wood sources are inaccessible or are removed.

Some common signs that indicate infestation by arid-land termites include piles of shed wings often near windows and doors, mud tubes in houses that have peeling paint and swarming termites.

These termites are commonly found in regions of Southern Arizona and Southeastern California.

They are normally very small in size and can easily thrive in dry conditions. The workers are typically cream colored and have an appearance similar to that of ants, soldiers are fairly large with big mouthparts and heads shaped like rectangles, and adult reproductives are half an inch long with wings and sport a yellowish-brown color.

The survival of desert subterranean termites largely depends on food sources like structural timbers in houses, utility poles and woody plants like cactus. Their colonies are usually massive, often containing more than 300,000 members.

These termites also build mud tubes for protection and prefer to search for food in moist soils and areas with shades soils.

Common infestation signs of these termites include the sudden appearance of swarming termites and mud tubes. They usually attack varieties of softwood that leaves a honeycombed print, and the damaged wood often contains a hollow section filled with mud.

The Eastern Subterranean termites are commonly found in parts of New England, East Coast, and the Midwest.

These are more of an organized and functional group of termites where every member of their colony carries out a specific function in order to maintain the success of the entire colony. The workers in this species basically help feed the whole colony and sport a cream color. The alates are usually winged and are known to leave the existing in order to build a whole new colony. The soldiers are like the colonys main protectors that use their large jaws fight intruders, and they are typically one-fourth inch long.

They are also quite popular for their destructive habits, and their feeding abilities are so dangerous that it can seriously weaken building structures, causing the entire framing to collapse.

Typical infestation signs include the presence of mud tubes and shed wings usually near windows, doors, and sources of light.

Commonly found in the East Coast regions of New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, Connecticut, Maryland, and Rhodes Island, this dark southeastern subterranean species of termites is a one-third inch long and usually has a dark brown or black body.

The soldier caste has large mouthparts with rectangular shaped heads and is known as the colonys defenders. The workers resemble cream colored ants and are mainly responsible for colony maintenance. The reproductive caste expands the colonies by laying eggs and swarming.

These termites like to feed on plywood, pine wood and structural lumber for survival. Common infestation signs include honeycombed damaged wood, partially digested wood and presence of their typical mud tubes.

These termite species are found in Nevada, California, and Washington. Their workers are similar in appearance to cream colored ants while the soldiers have pincher-like large mouthparts and rectangular heads. The swarmers have two large pairs of wings and dark brown bodies.

The western subterranean termites have a Queen termite that serves the purpose of a reproductive engine in the colony and has the potential to produce even more than 2000 eggs per day.

Interestingly, these termites are not picky food-eaters and usually eat decayed wood, fallen trees, and stumps. However, they do have quite a peculiar feeding system. They follow a shared feeding system called trophallax which involves a give-and-take process between colony members. This is basically marked by an exchange of gut contents through which nutrients are efficiently utilized.

Common signs of infestation include partially digested wood, damaged wood with mud-packed hollow sections and a honeycomb appearance in the infested wood.

Dampwood termites are usually found in Northern California, Washington, Northern Nevada, and Montana. They have the ability to survive without soil, so they prefer areas with woodpiles, decaying wood, and wood with an adequate amount of moisture. This is also why they are called dampwood, due to the fact they infest wood that has a high moisture content.

They are fairly larger than other termites and often have reddish-brown heads.

Dampwood termites are also divided into the following sub-categories.

This group is found in California, Texas and New Mexico. The best way to identify their presence is the appearance of the infested wood. The tunnels that they create within the wood have super smooth walls that look like they have been smoothed-out with sandpaper. These termites have spotted abdomens and often occur in variations of brown and yellow. They like to eat damp wood and are likely to be found in wet wood structures.

As the name suggests, these termites are found in the Florida Keys and are supposedly the largest termites in the Eastern United States. Their survival hugely depends on high humidity levels and water accessibility which is why they prefer living in moist woods. Instead of tunneling into the soil, Florida dampwood termites build galleries through the woods that they infest. Common signs of infestation by these termites include shed wings, the presence of the alates caste, and piles of fecal pellets.

The Nevada Dampwood termites are distributed across Nevada, Montana, and Idaho. Their primary castes include nymphs that have a cream color, the soldiers that have large mouthparts to defend from predators and brownish heads, and the alates that have dark brown bodies and wings and their length goes up to inches long.

There are likely to feed on any kind of wood present in structures or soils that have high moisture content and areas that are prone to tidal flooding. Some of their mature and well-developed colonies contain more than 4000 individuals; however; they can always vary in size.

These termites are found in mainly all of Florida, parts of California, Texas, Mexico and Alabama. They are known to attack furniture, flooring, wood structures, and frames which are also their main sources of nutrients. Unlike many other groups of termites, drywood termites dont require as much moisture from the soil for their survival. They also have large mouthparts and large sets of wings.

Drywood termites are further divided into two categories.

They are found in California and Arizona and usually form small colonies with about 3000 members. The soldier caste has two large mouthparts a brown colored head. The alates have a half an inch long body with smokey-black wings. They commonly infest exposed wood like attics, window frames, and doors.

Signs of infestation include shed wings, piles of fecal pellets and blisters of the damaged wood surface.

These termites are found in Florida, Georgia, Texas, and Alabama. They are quite similar in appearance to other drywood species which is best associated with the way they infest the wood that is, eating across the grain.

These termites can survive without a large amount of moisture, and their colonies are not as huge as those of the subterranean species. Their common signs of infestation include dead termite swarmers, shed wings, and fecal pellets.

These termites are native to the Caribbean and were first found in the United States sometime during the year 2001, but were then apparently eradicated from there in the year 2003. Initially, they were referred to as tree termites but were later renamed to Conehead termites in order to eliminate the fallacy that these species were only found in trees.

Unlike several other termite species, the Conehead termites are actually found above the ground where they rummage for food on the ground as ants do. They have quite a reputation for being aggressive termites that cause mass destruction in very short periods of time.

The name conehead comes from the fact that these termites have a cone-shaped head which is usually dark in color. The total conehead termite colony majorly consists of soldiers that make up about 30% of the entire colony. Another distinguishing feature of these termites is that they build more extensive and wider tunnels as compared to the subterranean species. They also build these their nests out in the open that are often round or oval in shape and are fairly large and dark-brown in color.

The conehead termites prefer to eat anything that has cellulose in it. Some of their common food sources include furniture, paper products, structural timber, trees, roots, shrubs, and fence posts.

Typical infestation signs include extensive tunnel networks that go all the way from the nests to their feeding locations.

This species of termites is commonly found in Arizona, West Texas, and New Mexico regions.

The workers colony of the desert termites are found in great abundance and are the major food providers. The soldier caste serves the main purpose of protecting the termite colony from predators, and they have large teeth-like mouthparts. The reproductives, as the name suggests, are the reproducers with wings and have a light-brown body that is usually half an inch long.

Desert termites have a tendency to dry out and lose moisture. So, one of their biggest survival tactics includes building a moisture-retentive sheet or tube that is made out of the carton. Carton is basically a mixture that contains feces and moist soil that is then bonded together with the help of the termites saliva. These termites usually tunnel and forage in or on the soil which helps make the soil more porous.

They like to feed on decomposed, living or dead plant material and prefer to live within dead or living grasses. Common infestation signs of desert termites include swarming soldier termites and layers of their protective sheets or tubes within the soil.

These termites have originated from China and are commonly found in southern U.S. regions such as Georgia, Hawaii, Texas, Mississippi, California, and Tennessee. They are popularly known as the most devious, aggressive and voracious of termite species which makes them extremely difficult to control once they form a colony or infest a structure.

Formosan termites build huge underground colonies that also include intricate mud nests that are well-contained within a walled structure.

There are over 2000 species of desert termites that are known to science which occur in three major castes. The workers are quite similar to the workers of the other termite groups while the alates are about half an inch long and sport a yellowish-brown color. They also have distinctive transparent wings that are covered with a thick layer of small hairs. The soldiers on the other hand have an oblong-shaped head and tend to be more aggressive than other termites when protecting their colony from danger.

Because their colonies are large, they are able to consume a great amount of wood compared to other termite colonies.

Whichever part of the world you live in, it is always suggested to have any leaks in your home fixed immediately, ensure that there is no amount of wood debris next to or near your house, and any openings to the house are sealed that may provide access for termites to enter in.

Related: 21 common household insects (in and outside the home)

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Pest Control Columbia SC | Cayce Exterminating Company

Posted: October 2, 2019 at 12:42 pm

For over 20 years, homeowners and businesses have depended on us for their pest control in Columbia SC. Our highly trained and knowledgeable professionals provide free inspections to the greater Columbia area.

During these inspections, we identify any pest problems and create a customized plan to eliminate pests in your home or office. We do all of this while minimizing the impact on the environment, your home and loved ones.

Each year, thousands of Columbia homeowners discover that they are sharing their home with pests and require the assistance of professional exterminators to rid their space of their unwanted guests.

Your first clue that you are not alone in your house may be small pellets or droppings scattered about which could indicate that mice, roaches or other rodents have made themselves comfortable in your home.

You might have noticed that you homes wood framing, floors and siding are slowly being eaten away by termites. Or, maybe youve experienced that dreaded moment of walking into a room and coming face to face with a roach or rat.

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How long does termite treatment last? How often is termite …

Posted: at 12:41 pm

Q. Do termites pose any risk of harm to family and pets?

Registered pesticides pose no significant hazard, whether it is to humans, pets or the environment when applied of course according to label directions. Extensive tests take place to observe any adverse effects on the health of people who may potentially encounter them. If any health problem may arise, despite the negligible health risk, instant contact should be made with ones physician.

Odorless treatments have come into market to consider the needs of more sensitive clients, however if the chemicals are still a problem, are irritating and people with termite infestation are still apprehensive of the pesticides than a suitable recommendation would be bait stations which have proven to be a good replacement.

More times than not, you havent been cheated. Its not necessary that your treatment exterminate any living termite in a 5 mile radius. Termite control is treatment of living creatures. Pests they may be but they arent something one can simply fix. The service differs from electrical work and plumbing etc. even experienced professionals with some of the best treatments at hand can fail to keep the pests out no matter how knowledgeable they may be.

Termites are very small regarding size therefore they can get through some of the tiniest gaps in nooks and crannies that you may not even know existed! Small areas in the soil that are left untreated can play as breeding grounds. Unlike other services such as plumbing or electrical work, termite control involves living creatures and one cannot program them to stay away.

Every firm has an intention to keep away the termites for good by creating an endless; barrier without any holes, made of chemicals however in actual practice this impenetrable barrier is close to impossible. If one considers baits, then even they arent the perfect prevention. It can take months for the termites to even find the strategically placed stations and their control is more or less a very hard achievement

There are many companies who actually consider these environmental conditions and actually consider flaws in application. Pesticides cannot expire within 5 years however if another termite infestation takes place, the company in charge of the pest management professionals often gives re-applications of the termite controlling chemical completely free of cost.

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