Click Free Pest Control Quote
to fill in a form to obtain a free pest control quote today.
Lewis Madison Terman (January 15, 1877 December 21, 1956) was an American psychologist and author. He was noted as a pioneer in educational psychology in the early 20th century at the Stanford Graduate School of Education. He is best known for his revision of the Stanford-Binet IQ test and for initiating the longitudinal study of children with high IQs called the Genetic Studies of Genius. He was a prominent eugenicist and was a member of the Human Betterment Foundation. He also served as president of the American Psychological Association. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Terman as the 72nd most cited psychologist of the 20th century, in a tie with G. Stanley Hall.
Terman received a B.S., B.Pd. (Bachelor of Pedagogy), and B.A. from Central Normal College in 1894 and 1898, and a B.A. and M.A. from the Indiana University Bloomington in 1903. He received his Ph.D. from Clark University in 1905.
He worked as a school principal in San Bernardino, California in 1905, and as a professor at Los Angeles Normal School in 1907. In 1910 he joined the faculty of Stanford University as a professor of educational psychology at the invitation of Ellwood Patterson Cubberley and remained associated with the university until his death. He served as chairman of the psychology department from 1922 to 1945.
His son Frederick Terman is widely credited (together with William Shockley) with being the father of Silicon Valley.
Terman published the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale in 1916 and revisions were released in 1937 and 1960. Original work on the test had been completed by Alfred Binet and Thodore Simon of France. Terman promoted his test the “Stanford-Binet” as an aid for the classification of developmentally disabled children. Early on, Terman adopted William Stern’s suggestion that mental age/chronological age times 100 be made the intelligence quotient or IQ. Later revisions adopted the Wechsler cohort-norming of IQ.
Revisions (mostly recently the fifth) of the Stanford-Binet remain in widespread use as a measure of general intelligence for both adults and for children.
The first mass administration of IQ testing was done with 1.7 million soldiers during World War I, when Terman served in a psychological testing role with the United States military. Terman was able to work with other applied psychologists to categorize army recruits. The recruits were given group intelligence tests which took about an hour to administer. Testing options included Army alpha, a text-based test, and Army beta, a picture-based test for nonreaders. 25% could not complete the Alpha test. The examiners scored the tests on a scale ranging from “A” through “E”.
Recruits who earned scores of “A” would be trained as officers while those who earned scores of “D” and “E” would never receive officer training. The work of psychologists during the war proved to Americans that intelligence tests could have broader utility. After the war Terman and his colleagues pressed for intelligence tests to be used in schools to improve the efficiency of growing American schools.
Terman followed J. McKeen Cattells work which combined the ideas of Wilhelm Wundt and Francis Galton saying that those who are intellectually superior will have better sensory acuity, strength of grip, sensitivity to pain, and memory for dictated consonants. At Clark University, Terman wrote his doctoral dissertation entitled Genius and stupidity: a study of some of the intellectual processes of seven bright and seven stupid boys. He administered Cattells tests on boys who were considered intelligent versus boys who were considered unintelligent.
Unlike Binet and Simon, whose goal was to identify less able school children in order to aid them with the needed care required, Terman proposed using IQ tests to classify children and put them on the appropriate job-track. He believed IQ was inherited and was the strongest predictor of one’s ultimate success in life.
Termans study of genius and gifted children was a lifelong interest. His fascination with the intelligence of children began early in his career since he was familiar with Alfred Binets research in this area.
Through his studies on gifted children, Terman hoped first, to discover the best educational settings for gifted children and, second, to test and dispel the negative stereotypes that gifted children were conceited, freakish, socially eccentric, and [insane].
Previously, the research had looked at genius adults had been retrospective, examining their early years for clues to the development of talent. With Binets development of IQ tests, it became possible to quickly identify gifted children and study them from their early childhood into adulthood. In his 1922 paper called A New Approach to the Study of Genius, Terman noted that this advancement in testing marked a change in research on geniuses and giftedness. Throughout his life Terman developed several methods for examining individuals with high ability, such as the longitudinal method and above-level testing. Some of these procedures would be adopted by other social scientists studying very different populations.
Terman found his answers in his longitudinal study on gifted children: Genetic Studies of Genius. Initiated in 1921, the Genetic Studies of Genius was from the outset a long-term study of gifted children. Published in five volumes, Terman followed children with extremely high IQ in childhood throughout their lives. The fifth volume examined the children in a 35-year follow-up, and looked at the gifted group during mid-life.
Genetic Studies of Genius revealed that gifted and genius children were in at least as good as average health and had normal personalities. Few of them demonstrated the previously-held negative stereotypes of gifted children. He found that gifted children did not fit the existing stereotypes often associated with them: they were not weak and sickly social misfits, but in fact were generally taller, in better health, better developed physically, and better adapted socially than other children. The children included in his studies were colloquially referred to as “Termites”. The gifted children thrived both socially and academically. In relationships, they were less likely to divorce. Additionally, those in the gifted group were generally successful in their careers: Many received awards recognizing their achievements. Though many of the children reached exceptional heights in adulthood, not all did. Terman explored the causes of obvious talent not being realized, exploring personal obstacles, education, and lack of opportunity as causes.
Terman died before he completed the fifth volume of Genetic Studies of Genius, but Melita Oden, a colleague, completed the volume and published it. Terman wished for the study to continue on after his death, so he selected Robert Richardson Sears, one of the many successful participants in the study as well as a colleague of his, to continue with the work. The study is still supported by Stanford University and will continue until the last of the Termites withdraws from the study or dies.
In 1915, he wrote a paper called The mental hygiene of exceptional children. He pointed out that though he believed the capacity for intelligence is inherited, those with exceptional intelligence also need exceptional schooling. Terman wrote that, [Bright children] are rarely given tasks which call forth their best ability, and as a result they run the risk of falling into lifelong habits of submaximum efficiency. In other words, nature (heredity) plays a large role in determining intelligence, but nurture (the environment) is also important in fostering the innate intellectual ability. By his own admission there was nothing in his own ancestry that would have led anyone to predict him to have an intellectual career.
Terman found too that while exceptional childhood IQ was associated with many great adult achievements, participants as a whole did not greatly exceed the socio-economic outcomes of others from similar social class backgrounds. Non-IQ factors may include hard work, luck, social contacts, good health, and other skills.
Apart from the Terman study, Terman Middle School in Palo Alto, California is named after himself and his son.
His son Frederick Terman, as provost of Stanford University, greatly expanded the science, statistics and engineering departments that helped catapult Stanford into the ranks of the world’s first class educational institutions, as well as spurring the growth of Silicon Valley. Stanford University has an endowed professorship in his honor.
Terman came to believe that IQ was, in addition to dependent on education, highly heritable.
His innovative wide-scale IQ testing exposed him to diverse groups of test-takers. Administering the tests to Spanish-speakers and unschooled African-Americans from the Southwest, he concluded:
High-grade or border-line deficiency… is very, very common among Spanish-Indian and Mexican families of the Southwest and also among negroes. Their dullness seems to be racial, or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they come… Children of this group should be segregated into separate classes… They cannot master abstractions but they can often be made into efficient workers… from a eugenic point of view they constitute a grave problem because of their unusually prolific breeding (The Measurement of Intelligence, 1916, p. 91-92).
Testing other groups in California, he observed
“Perhaps a median IQ of 80 for Italian, Portuguese, and Mexican school children in the cities of California would be a liberal estimate. How much of this inferiority is due to the language handicap and to other environmental factors it is impossible to say, but the relatively good showing made by certain other immigrant groups similarly handicapped would suggest that the true causes lie deeper than environment.” (Mental and Physical Traits of a Thousand Gifted Children, Volume 1, 1925, p. 57)
The suggestions of a significant role for genetics in IQ led Terman to later join the Human Betterment Foundation, a Pasadena-based eugenics group founded by E.S. Gosney in 1928 which had as part of its agenda the promotion and enforcement of compulsory sterilization laws in California.
A modern-day assessment of Terman’s contributions concluded:
Lewis Terman was a man of his less-than-enlightened time. He believed in eugenics, and his research project was called Genetic Studies of Genius. He naively assumed that his high IQ kids (nearly all white) would become the future leaders of science, industry, and politics. His inclusion of girls was an important exception to the biases of the era, since women had only just gotten the right to vote, and had few career options.
However, Terman was above all a scientist; and he was dedicated to collecting meaningful data, and to accepting what the data showed even when it contradicted his beliefs.
Here is the original post:
Lewis Terman – Wikipedia
- April showers bring May termites - tallahassee.com - April 21st, 2019
- What Do You Do if You See a Termite Swarm? - April 21st, 2019
- Subterranean Termites: Treatment & Control - Get Rid of ... - April 2nd, 2019
- 7 Signs You May Have Termites | Ehrlich Pest Control - March 24th, 2019
- Termites | Mississippi State University Extension Service - March 24th, 2019
- Everything You Should Know About Flying Termites | Western ... - March 24th, 2019
- Keep Termites Out and Know the Sure Signs of an Infestation - March 13th, 2019
- What should you do if you see termite swarmers? | Palmetto ... - March 2nd, 2019
- Termites: Beneficial Insects - Natural Organic Biological ... - March 2nd, 2019
- The 10 Best Termite Companies in Temecula, CA (with Free ... - March 2nd, 2019
- Termites - Havasu - March 2nd, 2019
- How to get rid of termites: 7 best termite killers in 2019 - March 2nd, 2019
- What you need to know about Termite Swarms - Turner Pest Control - March 2nd, 2019
- How to Identify Drywood Termite Droppings | Thrasher Termite ... - March 2nd, 2019
- The Termites - Costa Rica - March 2nd, 2019
- How to Kill Termites Naturally - Keep Bugs Away - March 2nd, 2019
- Drywood Termite Treatment: Get Rid of Drywood Termites - February 28th, 2019
- How do tiny termites make such massive mounds? - February 15th, 2019
- Flying Ants vs. Termites, Termite or Ant? - Orkin.com - February 3rd, 2019
- Signs of Termite Damage | Ehrlich Pest Control - January 31st, 2019
- Termite (Isoptera) - Animals - A-Z Animals - January 31st, 2019
- The Truth About the "Termites" | Psychology Today - December 28th, 2018
- Signs of Termite Damage|Termite Damage|Truly Nolen - November 1st, 2018
- Pictures of Termites | Ehrlich Pest Control - October 31st, 2018
- Termite Control - The Home Depot - October 31st, 2018
- How to Spot Termites: Termite Identification Pictures - October 31st, 2018
- Subterranean Termites Control | Do My Own Pest Control - October 15th, 2018
- Termites - Biology and Control - Browse Popular Publications - September 6th, 2018
- Termites Pest Control Information Perth - August 6th, 2018
- Termites - Nozzle Nolen - July 16th, 2018
- Termite - Field Guide to Common Texas Insects - June 17th, 2018
- What Do Termites Look Like? Signs of Termite Damage - June 2nd, 2018
- Termite Facts for Kids: Termite Information for Students - May 26th, 2018
- What Do Termites Look Like? Termite Identification - April 26th, 2018
- Termite Pictures: Photo Gallery with Images - April 21st, 2018
- Best 17 Termite Control in Fordyce, AR with Reviews - YP.com - March 4th, 2018
- Termites in Southwest Florida | Lenny's Bug Blog - February 28th, 2018
- End Of Termites | Terminator The best anti-termite ... - February 14th, 2018
- How to Get Rid of Termites - Pest Control Products - February 9th, 2018
- Termites - All About Termites - domyown.com - February 6th, 2018
- Termites | Dreamworks Animation Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia - February 3rd, 2018
- How to Treat Termites on Trees | Home Guides | SF Gate - February 3rd, 2018
- Prevent and Treat Termites to Avoid Damage to a House ... - January 21st, 2018
- Termites in Pennsylvania - Philadelphia, Pittsburgh ... - January 5th, 2018
- Termites in Potted Plants | Home Guides | SF Gate - January 3rd, 2018
- Subterranean Termites - extension2.missouri.edu - December 29th, 2017
- What Kinds of Termites do we Have in Georgia? - December 27th, 2017
- Signs of Termites: How to Detect Termite Evidence - December 17th, 2017
- What Are Termites? - December 15th, 2017
- Termite Facts - Softschools.com - December 3rd, 2017
- Termites | Horticulture and Home Pest News - December 3rd, 2017
- Termite Facts for Kids - December 3rd, 2017
- Are Termites Harmful to Humans? | Termite Treatment And ... - December 3rd, 2017
- Termite Identification | Termite Control DC, MD And Northern ... - November 26th, 2017
- What "Wood" a Termite Prefer To Eat? - November 25th, 2017
- Termites - All About Termites - DoMyOwnPestControl.com - November 25th, 2017
- Termite Inspection | Truly Nolen - November 24th, 2017
- Best 30 Termite Control in Villas, NJ with Reviews - YP.com - November 18th, 2017
- What Do Termites Look Like Exactly? Find Out How! - November 17th, 2017
- Subterranean Termites - How To Kill and Get Rid of ... - November 17th, 2017
- The Signs of Termite Infestation - Florida Pest Control - November 17th, 2017
- 9 Signs of Termites Infestation | Kill Termites Guide - November 17th, 2017
- Termite Control Cost Muskegon MI - Pest Control - ESFS - November 16th, 2017
- 4 Best Termite Control, Inspection Services - Waterbury CT ... - November 4th, 2017
- 3 Ways to Protect Your Home from Termites - wikiHow - October 16th, 2017
- How to Kill Termites: Best Ways to Get Rid of Termites ... - October 7th, 2017
- Termite Fast Facts: What You Need To Know - The Spruce - October 1st, 2017
- Formosan Termites - How to Kill and Get Rid of Formosan Termites - September 23rd, 2017
- Giving air to earthworms and termites - Farm Weekly - September 6th, 2017
- Meet the 'Terminator' of sanitary waste - Oherald - September 2nd, 2017
- UCA bear battling termites; options studied - Arkansas Online - August 31st, 2017
- Four hidden threats many homeowners miss - KTAR.com - August 31st, 2017
- Tracking Guelph's 2017 termite zones - GuelphMercury.com - August 31st, 2017
- How To: Get Rid of Flying Ants - BobVila.com - August 31st, 2017
- Termites nibbling away at Bismillah Khan's citations | Varanasi ... - Times of India - August 29th, 2017
- Alan Root, Oft-Bitten Wildlife Filmmaker, Dies at 80 - New York Times - August 29th, 2017
- Termites eat into village, locals flee - Times of India - August 28th, 2017
- Termite outbreak empties out Almora village - Times of India - August 27th, 2017
- Faith Lift: Termites - The Baytown Sun - August 26th, 2017
- Termites Springfield VA | Termite Control & Treatment - August 26th, 2017
Click Free Exterminator Quote
to fill in a form to obtain a free exterminator quote today.